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Hardwoods have high density and strength. Such wood is processed by mechanical methods: drilling, milling, turning. Hardwoods are widely used in the construction industry, as well as for the manufacture of furniture and finishing materials.

Let's take a closer look at the properties of the most popular hardwoods: acacia, oak, maple, beech, larch, walnut, teak, ash.



Acacia wood properties

Density: 800 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 7.1 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 150 mW

Acacia is a valuable breed, it has an unusually beautiful texture and shimmers in various colors. At the same time, it has high strength and density. It is easily processed by cutting, polishing, grinding. The wood is quite elastic, it bends well when raw. After drying, the density increases, and in this form the processing is more difficult to perform.

Has a high resistance to decay and moisture, fungi.

It is mainly used for the manufacture of furniture, decoration materials, interior and exterior decor, kitchen utensils and souvenirs.

Properties of oak wood

Density: 750 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 3.7 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 200-400 mW

One of the most durable breeds, which is quite difficult to work with. It is poorly cut, but has high elasticity. It has a beautiful, large texture with characteristic patterns.

Oak wood is very durable and difficult to cut. It is bent well. When working with a cutter, special care is required, since wood is fragile, while it lends itself well to large carvings. Oak with an age of at least 150-200 years is mostly used for joinery. It lends itself well to coating, including painting. It differs in high resistance to moisture and corrosion.

It is used in construction, for interior decoration. The highest quality wine and whiskey barrels, tubs, bowls, and other containers for storing drinks and food are made from oak.

Maple wood properties

Density: 720 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 4.8 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 190 mW

Maple wood is classified as a medium-weight species, with its high hardness, it is distinguished by its elasticity and toughness. It is virtually not warped. It has good flexural strength.

After drying it gains high stability and is easy to process.

Maple is polished, painted and stained; you can also varnish the wood.

It lends itself well to splitting.

It is most widely used for interior decoration and furniture production. In addition, maple is used to make musical instruments, soundboards, sculptures, toys and decor items.

Ash wood properties

Density: 700 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 4.1 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 180 mW

Ash's tensile and fold strength is better than oak. Ash wood is characterized by elasticity, high wear resistance and strength. Ash's viscosity is higher than most species in our latitudes.

Wood lends itself well to both manual and mechanical processing. After steaming, ash bends no worse than beech. It has good acid resistance, but degrades quickly on contact with the ground.

Since this species is difficult to impregnate, ash wood is rarely used for exterior decoration.

Ash wood is used to make plywood and veneer for furniture, decorative wall and floor coverings for indoor use. Ash is also used for the production of musical instruments, garden tools and equipment, sports equipment, decor, kitchen utensils.

Beech wood properties

Density: 720 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 3.8 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 200 mW

Beech has properties similar to oak: it is dense, hard and has a moisture content of 12-15%. The wood is homogeneous and viscous, but at the same time it tends to warp when dried. After drying, the stability of the breed is significantly reduced. Beech has the highest bending properties, which is why this species is widely used in furniture production.

Such wood lends itself well to processing, is easily finished and varnished or painted.

The resistance of beech to moisture and corrosion is low, so it is rarely used in its raw form outdoors.

Beech is used for the manufacture of interior items, as well as stairs. In industrial production, beech wood is used to create fiberboard, plywood, cellulose, and technical textiles.

Walnut wood properties

Density: 660 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 5 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 160 mW

Walnut wood has a uniformly dense structure, which is characterized by high strength and wear resistance. The elasticity is low, the wood does not bend.

After drying, it does not change shape, it becomes even more stable and durable. It is important that drying is carried out slowly, otherwise the wood may warp. It is easy processed, varnished and painted.

Screws are well suited for fastening parts, gluing is worse.

Walnut wood is used for the manufacture of furniture, decoration materials, home furnishings, decor and art objects.

Larch wood properties

Density: 500 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 2.6 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 130 mW

This breed, with average characteristics of strength and hardness, is distinguished by very high strength and wear resistance.

It is resistant to almost all environmental factors, therefore it is widely used in construction and exterior decoration of premises. In addition to its good mechanical properties, larch is also distinguished by its high-quality structure and beautiful woody patterns.

One of the disadvantages of larch can be called certain features in the technology of its processing. Saw blades are heavily greased when sawing. Such wood is difficult to process with conventional tools, but at the same time it lends itself well to grinding and painting.

With prolonged exposure to moisture, the hardness of the larch increases.

Many types of finishing materials are made from this type of wood, as well as stairs, doors, frames, kitchen furniture, barrels, containers. The material is also used for the exterior construction of bridges, houses and structures with constant contact with moisture (for example, dams, water mills, etc.).

Teak properties

Density: 650 kg / m³

Brinell hardness: 3.5 kgf / mm²

Thermal conductivity (at -30 / + 40 ° C): 150 mW

The main advantages of teak are its high moisture resistance and ease of processing. The peculiarity of teak lies in its smell of "old skin", due to the high content of useful essential oils in the wood.

Drying of wood is lengthy, it can take up to several years. Accelerated drying leads to cracking and unevenness of the wood.

Teak wood lends itself well to processing and covering, but due to its high resistance rates, this species is often used unprocessed.

Teak wood is used to produce components for ships, yachts, furniture, and also to make finishing materials and coverings.


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